The full name of The Artist`s Studio was The Artist’s Studio, a real allegory summing up seven years of my artistic and moral. The painter’s conception was to show his artistic career since 1848, and contain a profound social philosophy. The painter painted made all his friends who had influenced his life and thought and models that he once painted into one picture. In addition, this painting also focused on all walks of life images from the society, showing a French society in miniature.
The Artist`s Studio was the most successful and most complicated work in painting processing of Gustave Courbet. The artist’s conception was to take this painting as a memory of his life after 1848; this painting described more than 30 people and each character had its own meaning: in the middle, there was a view that the painter made and the child in front of the painting represented “innocent eyes”; the naked female model represented the eyes of the artist Mousika, or truth; behind the painting, the Saint Sebastian was fixed in the cross, representing the dead school art. The painting was divided into two parts: the person who sat right and read a book was the poet Baudelaire, which symbolized “poetry”; in the front, a pair of men and women was standing there, which were the appreciators of painting; each character in turn had symbolic significance: “prose”, “philosophy”, “music”. Another part of the oil painting was the models that mostly painters painted, which was set as the society. They were described as poverty, depression, damaged and exploited people.
The painting color of Duchamp’s painting Nude Descending A Staircase No 2 was brown, which was a typical Cubist tone. It took apart the human movements going downstairs, as if the moment captured picture pasted together. The title of the work was clearly written on the canvas, The naked woman of downstairs: has been described as “mills of the big bang”. Duchamp’s painting is considered to be pioneers of futurism. In this work, one can not see naked women, or a complete staircase, only to see some messy lines. Duchamp later sent this painting to the 28th independent exhibition, but it was rejected by the judges, saying that it had exceeded the tolerable limit. It had been seen in the United States Armory fairs and was regarded as “the big bang of the mills”.
Nude Descending A Staircase No 2 was a Marcel Duchamp‘s decisive work which was the second thorough reform of the traditional painting. It was said that he once saw a photo a friend made a Double Exposure of negatives, overlapping phenomenon of continuous movements in the film, giving the artist a great deal of inspiration. On this painting, however, objective figures were not contemplated by the painter and his naked woman down the stairs was cut into chunks of lines shapes. We could see a lot of overlap in the action States vaguely. Bright oil yellow sparkled in the light irradiation and groups that crossed Mirage hold in a rush. There was the crossroads the machines of the industrial age and people’s sense of urgency and speed. Evidently the creation of the painting under the influence of futurism and Dadaism absorbed the speed and against the traditional concept of art.
Under the influences of the Impressionist friends, Edouard Manet abandoned the style with dark colors and traditional themes after 1870 and accepted the light-colored series and also dedicated to the subjects of contemporary life. Among these themes, cafes occupied an important position. All the 19th century was the prosperity of the Paris cafes. These were all kinds of cafes, the coffee halls such as hotels and beer bars provided the customers with songs and dances. The painters worked all day long in the studio would go for a drink, smoking, talking about arts or listening to the popular songs the pop singers song. They would meet some models there sometimes. In fact, the cafes were the places where people mingled, people of all social classes appeared there, it was acceptable that there were even some single women(the synonym of prostitutes women) patronized there.
As well as the contemporaries, Manet went to the café house nearby frequently, whether it was dressy or ordinary. These places sometimes could give here creative inspirations. He was the regular of the coffee dance hall which located at the foot of the Montmartre hill. He often made some live sketches which showed the customers in the café and the scenes of shows. And then, he depicted these scenes as a significant draw in the studio, if he was not satisfied with the painting, he would split in into two pieces and then painted again on another canvas of the same theme. That was the painting in the Orsay museum.
The painting suffered the same fate as well, the trilateral sides had been cut and only the right side was remained. In order to show the overcrowded, smoggy and noisy scene of the café dance hall, he painted the objects as close as possible. They were five mainly types of people who represented all the social classes merging frequently in the place: a waitress, a worker with blue jacket, a bourgeois who was seen wearing a top hat and a woman and a female singer. Their faces were all been cut partially deliberately with the purpose of giving people a impression that this was a glimpse of nature or fast micrograph of arbitrary truncation space.
The female singer had only half body, it still felt weird even the other impressionists especially Degas also used this technique. Except the waitress was watching on the audience, the eyes of the others’ turned to the translucent silhouette of the singer appeared on the stage. He arranged the screen space through the eyes of the people in the painting to make opposite contacts between the foreground and background. All the figures seemed flatten in the painting, only the face of the waitress, beer cups, pipes, black hat, and the branches pendent lamp were visible clearly in the hazy painting. In order to show the lively atmosphere of the coffee dance hall, to shine the light, Manet picked up another vigorous and effective brush of the Impressionist, coloring with parallel and cross strokes which would not leave edges of sketching contours.
This painting was a special witness claimed that Manet was interested the paintings representing the scenes of life. Degas and Renoir mainly depicted such scenes.
William Turner was born in a hairdresser’s family in London, and learned watercolor from Thomas Malton who was served as the military surveyor. He was admitted into the Royal Academy of Fine Arts School at 14 and his watercolor landscape paintings were exhibited on public at 15. After graduation, he served as copying paintings for the Monroe doctor with Goddin. William Turner was particularly good at copying the watercolors of Keshensi and followed his style. He officially became the academician of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts School in 1802, established his own studio in 1804 and served as the Professor of Perspective science in 1807. In the meantime, Turner traveled to Europe repeatedly, created many excellent watercolor paintings. The amount of his works was up to 1500 pieces.
to senile depression in December 19, 1851 in Chelsea.
The painting consists of 12 people: a group of people in the middle was the center of the plot, an angel was holding the cross, and the light was coming from this side. And two men took just under the cross of Christ and their eyes were concentrating in the face of Christ, displaying the anxiety; on the left side a woman devoutly got on her knees with both hands holding the Christ’s feet, showing a grief feeling. Behind, the virgin Maria had been fainted because of excessive sadness. A pair of young people supported her as she did not fall and the woman on the left also felt sad due to the heard news. On the right side, a group of people also shrouded in a quiet atmosphere, especially the third person on the right sitting in the dark further added the plot atmosphere which was deep, blue and silent. At the same time, a touch of unrest was also floated in silence.
Entombment ceremony of Christ was originally sacred and solemn, and in Caravaggio’s pen, it was just plain and simple poor funeral scene. With real life events and figures, the painter depicted the sacred religious themes. The figures were arranged in the diagonal position, and Jesus as the main image was naked in the light, which was portrayed as a strong and lives on in spirit, like a hero. John and Peter held the remains of Jesus very devoutly. Peter was portrayed as a plain farmer with particularly eye-catching strong feet. The sad mother stretched out her right hand to caress farewell, and the girl who burst into tears was the saint Vala, and the behind was the grief with uplifted arms woman was the soul saved by Jesus. The whole painting was the epitome of a family tragedy. The spotlight, strong chiaroscuro painting for layout shaped the character and image, which was Caravaggio artistic style. He was not affected by the natural light. From the painter’s creative intention, the painting was composed of equalization, echo and the beauty of rhythm.
The Death Of The Virgin was a sacred theme in the religious art. But Caravaggio ignored the scala’s set pieces will, and created this work according to his own life experience and aesthetic principles of creation. What appeared in front of people was such a scene: in a dilapidated cottage on the table, a middle-aged ill woman who had no money to cure and was lying dead. She was very poor with unkempt hair, and haggard. She died without a pair of socks and shoes and was barefooted to lie on a small wooden bed. Half the body of the virgin was hung in the bed which realistically represented a poor family tragedy in Italy. In the prospect, the girl cried like losing the
the reflection of the critical thought at that time. Bruno once said that religion could not be counted as truth; everything should go to the bold suspicion and exploration. Caravaggio’s paintings were the bold suspicion and criticism of religion situation.