This work was commissioned by the Duke of Guidobaldo II della Rovere. It may be painted to celebrate his wedding in 1534. The Italian cassone with the original decoration which was a traditional box (also known as safe or Keith, was one of the oldest forms of furniture) was regarded as a wedding present. The maid behind the painting was carrying off to look for the clothes of Venus. Surprisingly, in view of its open pornography, the purpose of this painting was an enlightening model for the duke’s very young bride – Jurano.
The Venus of Urbino showed Titian’s delicate description and innovative composition. In front of painting, a naked beauty was lying in bed. The protagonist was believed to be a social butterfly with high income called Angela del Moro in Venice, which was also the mistress of Titian who accompanied him to have dinner. Behind her a large black cloth curtain covered the left half of the painting, and the right half showed the indoor scene and space. Titian cut off the background and dealt with the great difference to guide the viewers to know where was behind the shady place on the one hand. On the other hand, he intent to let people satisfy their inner desire. Titian’s processing and composition method was a challenge and breakthrough in the history of painting.
The painter placed Venus in a noble room, who seemed to have become the master of the bedroom. The Venus was staring at the audience and was indifferent to her naked body. Her right hand held a bouquet of roses, and her left hand covered her vulva, suggestively placing in the center. There was a small dog accompanying her beside the bed, and the dog was often used as a symbol of the “loyal”. The chamber had a maid who was prepared the clothes for the hostess after the bath. Titian placed Venus in an environment with strong family fun, which helped to strengthen the close and the warm feeling, and also catered to upper-class taste. In shaping the image of Venus, the painter gave full play to the body-building style, meant to depict the ideal and healthy women. Venus was rich, mature, gentle, and full of the young beauty. This painting became the leader in similar subjects, and also became the hard-to-reach typical type in female nude paintings.
In the ancient Roman myth, flora was the symbolization of the wisdom, beauty, and love. From April 28th to May 3rd every year, the traditional flora festival was held in Italy. In these six days, people were experiencing all kinds of joyful activities and decorating themselves with roses or their beloved animals. In people’s mind, flora was a symbol of happiness.
Titian’s Flora targeted at the hypocrisy of asceticism in the Middle Ages, praised the beauty of female body, and repeated this eternal theme in the work again and again. In accordance with the aesthetic point of view of the Renaissance, Titian depicted the flora virgin. Like the early bud, her eyes flashed the reserved glory. But her body was as mature as that of a lady to meet the people’s general appreciation. Titian’s work was not as rigorous and quiet as Leonardo da Vinci in the composition and atmosphere, not as reserved and gentle as Raphael in the characters, not as painful and angered as Michelangelo. He was good at outlining the characters based on the brown background, rubbed out the hidden soft notes by hand, making the character float out with the color, like Botticelli’s Birth of Venus. Before this, no one dared to boldly depict the completely secular women who were full of vitality. If saying Michelangelo was the giant of using nudes who dignified to the church, then Titian was using the mature naked human bodies to express the confidence of the emerging bourgeoisie from the point of hedonism.
Open Window Collioure was the work exhibited in autumn salon in 1905 when Matisse was 36 years old. In that salon, he showed the works of Open Window Collioure and Woman with a Hat. This painting was composed of wide vertical lines which were performed in bright green, blue, purple and orange. The window wall was only a small part, more like a gorgeous picture frame. But the window only accounted for the three fourths of the painting. The
casement was open. The balcony placed the flower pots and growing vine, then was the sea, the sky and the ships were showed with the brightest colors. In the distance there was a beautiful pattern with bright little strokes. The strokes extended from the green dots to a little wider light red, white and blue. In this painting, Matisse had exceeded any impressionist and showed the slight traces of abstract colors. Matisse said that this painting was inspired by the illness when he was 21 years old. What he painted was the window that he had stared at for a long time in the patient’s room.
Open Window Colliourewas perhaps the first example that the painting topic achieved the full development. For the rest of my life, Matisse always preferred this theme. It was only a small part of the wall and the windows accounted for a large space. The outside world was a beautifully decorated pattern with bright small strokes. Matisse said, “My painting is to express a state of mind.” The open window was showing a state of mind.
Woman with a Hat was painted in 1905, which was the painting that made French Fauvism representative Henri Matisse famous. This work depicted a portrait of a woman’s back. Here Matisse aggressively abandoned the snap in the form and put the pigment indiscriminately on the screen. Not only the background and hat, but also the woman’s face and appearance, were in bold green and red brushwork to trace the outline.
In the autumn salon of 1905, Matisse exhibited a portrait of his wife, entitled
Woman with a Hat. This was the early Fauvism work of Matisse and also the most representative work of Fauvism, which caused a great sensation. In the painting, the strong colors directly out of the paint tubes did not represent the real objects existing in reality, but through the painter’s own visual experience of processing their characters to cause the vibration of the viewers’ retina, to establish a new painting criterion that was different from the tradition.
Woman with a Hatwas the early work of Matisse. We could see that based on the realism, his attempts were made to an impulse. The various color paints that were applied to the woman’s face, clothes and hat were a bit stiff, but his determination was overweeningly ambitious. This was the innovation, which made an innovation to the realism and impression and created new forms. He gradually knew the bright colors could restore the passion of life, arouse people’s desire, and sublimate to the ideal realm filled with joy.
Harmony in Red was made in 1908, which measured 177 x 200 cm. It had a big width. Seen from the distance, it was totally red. Now it is preserved in Russia St Petersburg Al Mita Museum, which was one of the representative works of Matisse. In this painting, he made a new exploration and completely removed the perspective to show a pattern world full of contrasting colors with full colors, orange and blue, yellow and purple, red and black. The Islamic textiles, oriental tapestry or other decorations seen in Algeria, Spain and other places were plane.
Harmony in Red turned the scenes in front into decorative pattern and the perspective was completely removed. Through the window, the characters and scenery became part of the pattern. The dark lines ticked the simple shapes, and no walls, floor, table, with a large red, full of colors to show a full of contrasting color world. This painting was more exotic and mysterious than the image that Gauguin and other impressionists could imagine He only used one red block without harmonic production, defining the interior room space. Vine pattern was evenly distributed in the wall and on the desktop, which enhanced the red block’s attachment for the painting. The abstract trees and plants silhouetted against the green earth and the blue sky, defining the outdoor scenery. The red building on the top repeated the room’s color. To some extent, it established the illusion of depth of this landscape painting. Matisse abandoned the formal perspective and added a few strokes with perspective of embellishment, such as window frames, the chair in the left foreground, things placed in the table, vine pattern around the edge of the table. In essence, through the use of color and line, a fresh painting space world palpable was made.
The Meeting Bonjour Monsieur Courbet made in 1854 was the performance of the country where he walked across with his painting tools. His friend and boss was respectfully greeting him. For people who were get used to the academic art works, this painting seemed to be very naïve. The simple layout did not have the graceful posture with no smooth lines and touching colors. In terms of “elegant” artists and their supporters, the whole idea that drew the painter as a tramp without wearing a coat was treason and heresy. This painting was actually a group portrait where the painter appeared arrogant, self-confident and self-respect. He intentionally lowered the horizontal lines to make the figures tall. He also used the outdoor light and bright and transparent colors to show a masterpiece of self-expression. What he painting depicted was the painter Courbet carrying a picture box out painting and meeting his friend Brua and his servant on the way. The intention of this painting was the performance of the painter’s arrogance. So, his handful wedge beard was dubbed the “Hello, Mr. Courbet”!
When it comes to Courbet’s revolutionary and critical sense, it was necessary to mention this painting The Meeting Bonjour Monsieur Courbet. If you did not say which one is Courbet, probably most audience would guess wrong and think the person dressed in graceful clothes and leather shoes is Courbet. In fact, the backpacker closest to us in the painting was the real Courbet. From this painting, we saw Courbet did not beauty himself and what we saw was the real Courbet. The real significance of this painting was that the Courbet’s sponsor met Courbet, but Courbet was dressed casually and not like a gentleman. This was not in line with rule as that time, which reflected the painter’s attitude to attack the society. At the time of the society, the revolutionary and critical spirit of Courbet was quite remarkable. Later it was said that Gauguin also referred to Courbet’s skill to paint a picture of Good Morning, Mr. Gauguin, which was about to follow in an experience against the traditional meaning. But it was not so famous, while still worth learning.
When the French Emperor Napoleon III visited a painting exhibition in Salon, he saw a painting called The Bathers. He found it was very “vulgar” and then took the whip from his fellows to severely beat this painting. This rude behavior caused great repercussions in society at that time. At the same time, this also made the painting very famous. The Bathers was made by the famous French painter Courbet in 1853. Courbet was born in Ornans town in the south of France in 1819. At the
center position of viewpoint. Vigorous modeling skills and painting expressive force showed the charm of realistic painting language. The Bathers was an outstanding work that performed the female bodies. Its painting techniques were indeed the pride of French paintings. In the whole work, the background was the dense green plants and the blue sky appeared in the corner. But it was like the photography with the false scenery in the studio before, which was intentionally arranged by the painter. Under its contrast, the women’s skin gave a rosy and healthy feeling.
the simplicity of life with rich artistic charm. The critic Carsten sincerely felt happy and said Courbet no longer drew those vulgar labor nudes and began to pay attention to the Paris people’s appreciation. Subsequently, his works were successfully sold. Courbet gradually lost his own control. And in a conference in Antwerp in 1861, he said, “I argue denying the ideal and everything that is associated with this thing. And I am in favor of the full personality liberation and democracy.”
Five years later, he took out the amazing woman body painting Woman with a Parrot in a fair, which was quite different from the previous realistic painting style. The naked woman was lying on a bed covered with white sheets and the female nude was more seductive under the contrast of the white. The modeling was very precise and the woman’s hair and the parrot on her left hand strengthened the body’s charm, giving people some pornographic means. Courbet used so bold composition which was not often seen in his previous works. Naked skin was demonstrated embellish in the dark environment and the stretched curve once again showed Courbet’s realistic skills and ability. It was said that before the salon, the single lines in Manet’s artwork Olympia once caused the strong criticism, which made Courbet produce a compromise psychology. The irresistible personality of him disappeared and he used the best artistic art skills to create his natural realistic essence of aesthetics. There was no doubt that this painting was the masterpiece in his later artistic career, although this artistic attitude was accused by the writer Zola who was once very supportive.
Mlle Irene Cahen D’Anvers was one of the most impressionistic portraits of Pierre Auguste Renoir, which was a side-way portrait made for a famous banker’s daughter 8-year-old daughter Irene. The little Irene had a head of golden brown and fluffy hair which hung in her chest and waist. She was wearing a light blue dress, with her head wearing a small butterfly knot. She sat quietly and her hands put on the thighs. She looked very pale and her big eyes stared at the front, seeming to be preoccupied by some troubles. The whole painting’s color was very bright and the elegant painting techniques. The modeling was completed by a series of fine short stroke; there was no clear line on the screen. Against the dark background, the girl with the blonde hair was particularly bright.
The little Irene had the oriental ethereal temperament and her inexplicable melancholy temperament deeply made me fall in love with her. At the age of 8, she should be happy and cheerful. But what the little Irene showed was a quiet, sedate and somewhat mature feeling. People did not know why they were fascinated by this painting. Seeing her, people could feel infected by her quietness and sadness and their impetuous and endless heart would become calm. Renoir once said, “Only when I feel that I am able to touch people in the painting, I can say I have completed this human portrait painting.” And the little Irene was such a character. I felt as if she was sitting in front of me. There was a world in her eyes, which was another world in her heart. Maybe she was imaging or in meditation. Her existence was a kind of beauty.
Although the performance of the Mediterranean seascape was always the calm torpid sea, the English Channel looked out from the Normandy coast was rolling a storm and wave scene. The waves were kept to the precipitous rock faces and sheer cliffs roll up and shatter.
In the summer of 1869, Courbet stayed in the tower and painted a series of sea billowing seascapes, and entitled them The Stormy Sea. His painting technique was quite different from that of other impressionist painters. Other impressionist painters tried to show the restlessness state of the motion of the waves, which was a fleeting scene. But Courbet was on the contrary. He faced the magnificent natural wonders and what he pursued was the absolute existence. He treated the waves just like treating a tree or a rock and carefully studied their shape, size as well as the quality. Courbet came from the countryside and liked the concrete and real things. Such trait appeared in his paintings and produced a kind of Special Forces, making the real things out of myth. The instinct idealization of solid unchanging things would make Courbet’s modeling language have the absolute power. This seascape painting was the most memorable one among his series of sea view paintings. Courbet especially focused on the depiction of the clouds, and tried to find out the new relationship between the painting and the color. The waves like a bubble clouds, sunset afterglow and the grey prospect made all blend into one harmonious scene as a whole.